Genealogy Website traces N.B. First Nation history

Genealogy website traces N.B. First Nations history
Published Saturday February 20th, 2010
Chief of Fort Folly First Nation says there are many roadblocks in tracing genealogy

By Meg Edwards
Times & Transcript staff
A new website called ‘Genealogy First — Genealogy and the First People of New Brunswick’ offers First Nations people a chance at researching their surnames, while in the process collaborating in collecting, preserving and sharing their rich heritage.

Photo: Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick Graydon Nicholas (left) congratulates Chief Joseph Knockwood at the band office of the Fort Folly First Nations Reserve this week on the creation of one of the first genealogy websites written specifically for Native people.

Lieutenant-Governor Graydon Nicholas congratulated Chief Joseph Knockwood at the band office of the Fort Folly First Nation this week, along with chiefs and elders from many of the First Nation communities in New Brunswick, on the creation of one of the first genealogy websites written specifically for Native people.

Chief Knockwood worked as an historian and researcher at the Union of New Brunswick Indians in the 1970s. At first he worked on specific land claims for First Nations, and although he was not trained in it, he says, “Over the years I got very good at doing research.”

His skill for genealogical research began with a court case. Knockwood was asked to research a family name for Nicholas, a lawyer at the time, working on a case for a First Nations man who had been arrested with a dead beaver in the back of his car.

“That was my first genealogy project, doing a family chart. And I did the family chart all the way back to around 1760, because it had to go back to the Treaty of 1778. When we won that case, the premier at the time, it was Hatfield, said, ‘Well, that is only one Indian that has aboriginal rights, now you have to prove every one, individually.’ And that was when Graydon said it is time to put together a large book and do all the families.”

The clearly written and well designed site provides a list of 1,400 surnames, an introduction to the process of genealogical searches, and examples of different sources of records and where they can be found. The website also provides links to other research tools.

Knockwood says that tracking down names can be difficult. The chief and his wife spent many hours copying names by hand from church records on First Nations across the Maritime provinces.

There was a time when there was no record of First Nation people, says Knockwood, “When you go back to a certain time, the church records don’t carry facts about First Nations. In 1851 there is a record that says, ‘Also there are Indians living here’ on the back of the document.”

The origins of today’s database came from a fire in the Union of New Brunswick Indians building in the 1990s. Instead of throwing away damaged paperwork, Knockwood kept all the photos and lists of names that he could recover and had them put in archives.

Later, university students, including his own daughter Patricia Knockwood, who was working on her Masters in Library Science, organized all the material.

Anyone who has tried to trace their family name knows that the path is fraught with puzzles. But the history of First Nation people in New Brunswick adds further complications because, says Knockwood, there were times when “people hid information.”

“If a girl was pregnant from a Native guy, they’d make sure that the father was never known,” he explains. “And it was the other way around too. When a young French girl, say at 15 or 16 years old, had a baby with a French boy, and her family did not want her to have the kid, they brought it to the First Nations. I know a case of this, where the person is still living there. The priest told her that she is not Native and that her grandmother brought her to the reserve and dropped her off.”

Presently the website can be found online at but it will soon be available at



  1. Heather Duncan

    I happened across your site while fumbling through my roadblocked genealogy. I live in Ontario but my father and his family are from Restigouche on both sides of the river. My roadblock is a great-grandfathers adoption. I read the section relating to mixed race births, custody matters and This may explain what’s missing, and also excuses made to deny the child baptized is my ggpa. I am going to a french catholic gen. society for a look through more church records. The area would have been St. Anne de Restigouche 1873, if you know anyone with some expertise in that area I would love to pick their brain.
    I have found your site very insightful and a genuine interest shown to help people, it is quite calming actually. I enjoy the blog and information provided and will pop by in the future to see new material. Thank you,

    Heather Duncan

    • Thanks so much for writing,your comments have brightened my day. Unfortunately I don’t know that much about genealogy in Restigouche but you are probably on the right track to go through the Catholic Church records,you might even find your answers there. There is another piece that I wrote called ‘Only Your Mother Knows for Sure’ (in, my personal blog)) that you may find interesting. It is all about my brother’s search for his birth family and the roadblocks we have come across! It is very difficult to get the real story when people have been telling tales forever, but in many cases the stories and the changed names were put there to protect the child. Fascinating histories! I wish you luck with your search and I hope it leads you back out east for a visit to your father’s homeland.

      Here is the link to my other blog if you are interested,

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